Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of six herbal plants against the human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line
Chinese Medicine 2011, 6:39 doi:10.1186/1749-8546-6-39
Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4' -nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index= 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 +/- 5.8ug/ml (mean +/- standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 +/- 8.1ug/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500ug/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells.
Antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in mice
Chinese Medicine 2011, 6:38 doi:10.1186/1749-8546-6-38
Background Lutein is an important eye-protective nutrient. This study investigates the protective effects and mechanisms of lutein on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced uveitis in mice. Methods Lutein, suspended in drinking water at a final concentration of 12.5 and 25mg/mL, was administered to mice at 0.1mL/10g body weight for five consecutive days. Control and model group received drinking water only. Uveitis was induced by injecting LPS (100mg per mouse) into the footpad in the model and lutein groups on day 5 after the last drug administration. Eyes of the mice were collected 24 hours after the LPS injection for the detection of indicators using commercial kits and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results LPS-induced uveitis was confirmed by significant pathological damage and increased the nitric oxide level in eye tissue of BALB/C mice 24 hours after the footpad injection. The elevated nitric oxide level was significantly reduced by oral administration of lutein (125 and 500mg/kg/d for five days) before LPS injection. Moreover, lutein decreased the malondialdehyde content, increased the oxygen radical absorbance capacity level, glutathione, the vitamin C contents and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Lutein further increased expressions of copper-zinc SOD, manganese SOD and GPx mRNA. Conclusion The antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against LPS-induced uveitis, partially through the intervention of inflammation process.
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